Click on the author that interests you. Abecassis, Jose Maria: "Genealogia Hebraica.
The Meaning of Some Common Sephardic Last Names
Portugal e Gibraltar". Les Juifs du Maroc et leurs noms". Jews of the Sudan". Limited edition pamphlet, April Compiled by Ujlaki in Budapest August 30, and presented with his permission.
Four volumes of carefully documented Jewish family trees from Portugal and Gibralter. Extensive work on the family names of Sephardic Jews of Morocco. Careful study of names, their origins, their variants, etc. Lists occurances of the names with summary of data and documented sources making it an indispensible source for Sephardic research even if not from Morocco.
However that website no longer exists. Malka, Eli S. Jews of the Sudan. Syracuse University Press Click here for additional information. Gabriel Arieauthor of the pamphlet, was a well known teacher and director of Alliance Israelite Universelle schools in various countries. The information was extracted by Dov Cohen in Israel from the limited print pamphlet title listed above and Dov very kindly supplied me with the Gedcom file he created, which can be downloaded by clicking herefrom which I extracted the surnames listed below.
Leon Tello, Pilar: "Judios de Toledo". Some spouses were obtained from Istanbul. The migrations varies. Some went to the Belgium Congo. Some went to South America". Victor Alkana can be reached at valkana ix. Published by the Jewish Historical Society of England. To help my fellow researchers I will list Sephardic names that I have found to appear in several printed sources useful to genealogists.
This will take some time, so please be patient. Hopefully this will be of value to researchers of Sephardic families. Use the "find" feature of your browser to look for the name you are interested in.
Again suggestions are welcomed as we all try to help each other. Donations of lists you have developed are even more welcome! Lisboa Laredo, Abraham: "Les noms des Juifs du Maroc". Institut Arias Montano, Madrid. Toledano, Joseph: "La saga des familles.They established communities throughout areas of modern Spain and Portugalwhere they traditionally resided, evolving what would become their distinctive characteristics and diasporic identity, which they took with them in their exile from Iberia beginning in the late 15th century to North AfricaAnatoliathe LevantSoutheastern and Southern Europeas well as the Americasand all other places of their exiled settlement, either alongside pre-existing co-religionists, or alone as the first Jews in new frontiers.
Their millennial residence as an open and organised Jewish community in Iberia began to decline with the Reconquista and was brought to an end starting with the Alhambra Decree by Spain's Catholic Monarchs inand then by the edict of expulsion of Jews and Muslims by Portuguese king Manuel I in which resulted in a combination of internal and external migrations, mass conversions and executions.
In both Spain and Portugal passed laws which allowed Sephardim who could prove their origins in those countries to apply for citizenship. More broadly, the term Sephardim has today also come sometimes to refer to traditionally Eastern Jewish communities of West Asia and beyond who, although not having genealogical roots in the Jewish communities of Iberia, have adopted a Sephardic style of liturgy and Sephardic law and customs imparted to them by the Iberian Jewish exiles over the course of the last few centuries.
This article deals with Sephardim within the narrower ethnic definition. Historically, the vernacular languages of Sephardim and their descendants have been variants of either Spanish or Portuguesethough other tongues had been adopted and adapted throughout their history.
The historical forms of Spanish that differing Sephardic communities spoke communally was determined by the date of their departure from Iberia, and their condition of departure as Jews or New Christians.
Judaeo-Spanishsometimes called "Ladino Oriental" Eastern Ladinois a Romance language derived from Old Spanishincorporating elements from all the old Romance languages of the Iberian Peninsula, Hebrew and Aramaicand was spoken by what became the Eastern Sephardim, who settled in the Eastern Mediterranean, taken with them in the 15th century after the expulsion from Spain in This dialect was further influenced by Ottoman TurkishLevantine ArabicGreekBulgarian and Serbo-Croatian vocabulary in the differing lands of their exile.
Haketia also known as "Tetouani" in Algeriaan Arabic-influenced Judaeo-Spanish variety also derived from Old Spanish, with numerous Hebrew and Aramaic terms was spoken by North African Sephardim, taken with them in the 15th century after the expulsion from Spain in The main feature of this dialect is the heavy influence of the Jebli Arabic dialect of northern Morocco.
Early Modern Spanish and Early Modern Portugueseincluding in a mixture of the two was traditionally spoken or used liturgically by the ex-converso Western Sephardimtaken with them during their later migration out of Iberia between the 16th and 18th centuries as conversosafter which they reverted to Judaism. Modern Spanish and Modern Portuguese varieties, traditionally spoken by the Sephardic Bnei Anusim of Iberia and Ibero-Americaincluding some recent returnees to Judaism in the late 20th and early 21st centuries.
In this latter case, these varieties have incorporated loanwords from the indigenous languages of the Americas introduced following the Spanish conquest. In the narrower ethnic definition, a Sephardi Jew is a Jew descended from the Jews who lived in the Iberian Peninsula in the late 15th century, immediately prior to the issuance of the Alhambra Decree of by order of the Catholic Monarchs in Spain, and the decree of in Portugal by order of King Manuel I.
The modern Israeli Hebrew definition of Sephardi is a much broaderreligious based, definition that generally excludes ethnic considerations. In its most basic form, this broad religious definition of a Sephardi refers to any Jew, of any ethnic background, who follows the customs and traditions of Sepharad.
For religious purposes, and in modern Israel, "Sephardim" is most often used in this wider sense which encompasses most non-Ashkenazi Jews who are not ethnically Sephardi, but are in most instances of West Asian or North African origin, but who nonetheless commonly use a Sephardic style of liturgy, meaning a majority of Mizrahi Jews.
The term Sephardi in the broad sense, thus describes the nusach Hebrew language"liturgical tradition" used by Sephardi Jews in their Siddur prayer book. A nusach is defined by a liturgical tradition's choice of prayers, order of prayers, text of prayers and melodies used in the singing of prayers.Apr 17 23 Nisan Torah Portion.
Some of the most famous names of the Sephardic community can be traced back to medieval times. Whereas Ashkenazi surnames did not become common until the 18th century, Spanish Jews have used family names since medieval times and are used by their descendants to this very day. Although Sephardi and Ashkenazi names are distinctly different, many times they mean the same thing. Prior to the expulsion Spain was a golden era for Jews. Many fled to Portugal as refugees but were forcibly converted only five years later.
Those that left Spain or escaped from Portugal were widely dispersed throughout the Ottoman Empire, Italy and South-Eastern Europe where they either joined existing Jewish communities or established new ones. Salonica, Morocco, Izmir, Istanbul, Holland and The Island of Rhodes are only some of the places where thriving Sephardic communities were established.
Many also fled to Gibraltar and North Africa because of its proximity to the Iberian Peninsula while others were able to flee to Israel or the New World. Most of the names listed below can be found among Inquisitional manuscripts, Church registrars, notarial archives and other ancestral records that go back for centuries in both the Spanish and Portuguese kingdoms. Sephardic surnames often denote places of origin and were directly related to geographical locations either before or after the expulsion in or were acquired during the forced wanderings caused by the exile.
Many family names were related to one's profession such as Melamed, Cabrera and Alhadeff. Like their Ashkenazi brethren, surnames such as Cohen and Levy are also found among Sephardic communities and denoted Cohanic or Levitic descent. Some Jews that chose to convert and stay in Spain after the edict of expulsion took upon the names of their Christian godparents but practiced their Judaism in secret until they were able to escape to nearby countries such as the Netherlands, England and France where they returned back to Judaism.
Italian, Spanish, French and Latin words are commonly found among most Sephardic surnames as many of the provinces and cities in the Iberian Peninsula derived their names from these languages. One of the oldest Spanish family names which traces its origin from King David. Abecassis : From the word 'Av' meaning Father and Arabic 'kassas' meaning storyteller. In Algeria, community leaders and rabbis were given the title 'Kassis'. Many Jews from Gibraltar, Portugal and Morocco share this name.
Adatto : From the Italian word meaning 'suitable' or 'appropriate'. Jews that left Spain for Turkey via Italy took on this name. Angel : The surname comes from the Hebrew word of 'malach' meaning 'angel'. The Sephardic carriers of the surname would have some Ashkenazi ancestors who moved to Sephardi countries and joined and were adopted by those communities.
Azose : Anglicized version of the surname 'Azuz'.In my previous articleI wrote about the mysterious Jews of Italy, who seem to be neither Ashkenazi nor Sephardi. So it was natural to turn to a neighboring West European country, France, where the history of the Jewish communities is also quite non-linear.
These communities pose a similar difficulty to the simplistic and popular dichotomy of Jews as being either Sephardic or Ashkenazic. In this article, we will discuss the geographic roots of French Jews, with names taken as illustrations.
French Jews pose a greater quandary than Italian Jews, for the history of French Jews is discontinuous; when discussing their origins, we need to address the different periods separately.
During the first medieval period, there were two large groups of Jews who were living in the territory of modern France. The first group dwelled in northern provinces including Ile-de-France Paris areaChampagne, and Normandy, and spoke French in their everyday life. In medieval rabbinical works written in Hebrew, this area is designated as Sarfat.
Its Jews were closely related to their coreligionists from the Rhine area in Germany. The strength of their cultural influence can be seen in similarities of religious rites and pronunciation of Hebrew. Their legacy can be observed in a series of Yiddish words such as orenmeaning to pray known only in Yiddish of Western Europe ; leyenenmeaning to read, tsholntthe famous Sabbath meal, and teytlmeaning date fruit. The second Jewish group lived in the territory that today corresponds to southern France.
Its Jews spoke the local language, Occitan, as their daily idiom. Their religious rite was significantly different from that of their northern French coreligionists. In the Middle Ages, the western part of that area, Languedoc, with such important communities as Narbonne and Montpelier, belonged to the French Kingdom.
The eastern part covering Marseille and Arles was a separate state of Provence that was incorporated into France only at the end of the 15th century. Yet in the medieval Jewish culture, despite these administrative borders, the whole southern area including Languedoc was known under the name of Provence.
Jews were first expelled from France in This event was fatal for the formerly prosperous communities of Languedoc. Numerous families migrated to neighboring Kingdoms of Majorca, Aragon, or Navarre these territories today are mainly in Spain, with a notable exception of the area around the city of Perpignan, now in Francebringing with them surnames like Nassi according to the local tradition, the ancestor of this leading family from Narbonne came there from BabyloniaBesiers, and de Carcassona.
When nine years later the French king revoked the expulsion law, the families in question usually did not return to Languedoc. The communities in northwestern France including Normandy were not reestablished either. It was only in northeastern part of the Kingdom that Jewish life was, at least partly, restored. But inall French Jews were expelled again. Some of them including the Treves, the family of the Chief Rabbi of Paris went to the County of Savoy today in France, but in the Middle Ages, a separate state or states in northern and central Italy.
Others joined Ashkenazic communities in Alsace, Switzerland, and Germany. Among them was another branch of the Treves family. Inafter the incorporation of Provence to the French Kingdom, all Jews of Provence were also expelled and no person openly professing Judaism remained in France. The medieval communities in northern and southern France, distinct culturally, were not isolated from each other. For example, several male given names common in the North were originally brought by migrants from the South, among them Senior and Vives the ancestors of Yiddish given names Shneyer and Fayvush, respectivelyas well as Bendit also later used by Ashkenazim.
Since the end of the 13th century, an enclave belonging to the Papal States existed in the Avignon area today in southern Francewith important Jewish communities in Avignon itself and neighboring Carpentras. Until when the area was integrated to Francelocal Jews were not concerned by the French legislation.
Isolated from other Jews, these communities mainly remained endogamous. Of the total of about 2, persons, a huge portion was covered by only a few dozens of surnames.
The Jews from this Papal enclave are the only families whose presence in the territory of modern France was non-interrupted for many centuries.
The history of Ashkenazic Jews from Alsace-Lorraine is different.
In midth century, only a hundred Jewish families were present in all of Alsace. These German-speaking territories were annexed by France in the 17th century.
Despite the formal interdiction of Judaism in France, the French authorities did not bother the local Jewish population.French names are used in France and other French -speaking regions.
See also about French names. Modern Rare Archaic. Related name is is not. User list. The name referred to a person who was pale, or whose hair was blond. This name belonged to a person who lived in a house made of planks. It may have originated as a nickname for a person who dressed in the material or as an occupational name for someone who worked with it.
Who Are The Jews Of France? Their Last Names Give A Clue
The name referred to a person who made, sold or often wore cloaks. It denoted one who lived near a cross symbol or near a crossroads.
It probably referred to a person who lived close to, or cared for a rose garden. A famous bearer was the French artist Marcel Duchamp This was a nickname for a stubborn person. It was probably originally derived, via Old French forestfrom Latin forestam silva meaning "outer wood ".
GAGE FrenchEnglish Occupational name derived either from Old French jauge "measure" a name for an assayer or gage "pledge, payment" a name for a moneylender. Both words were ultimately of Frankish origin.French Genealogy Tutorial
The name most likely originated as a nickname for an aggressive or cruel person. The name referred to a person who was pale or whose hair was blond. It was a title given to a town official, or else a nickname for someone who was pompous and officious.
This was a nickname for a person with red hair. A famous bearer of this surname is George Lucasthe creator of the Star Wars movies. A famous bearer was the French impressionist painter Claude Monet It was perhaps used for a short, small person or to denote the younger of two individuals.
It was most likely used to denote a person who raised or sold poultry. The historic figure Cardinal Richelieuborn Armand du Plessis, was so-called because he became the first Duke of Richelieu. All denote a person of a rosy complexion or a person who lived in an area abundant with roses. A famous bearer was the philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau whose ideas influenced the French Revolution. Apply this search to the user-submitted names.Many made their way to France, especially the southern part of France, known as Bayonne and Bordeaux.
During the early 's some of the Anusim Jews forced to convert to Catholicism who fled to France, ended up immigrating to New France, now known as Canada, seeking a life without persecution. The objective of this project is to prove this theory. In doing so, they would like to link themselves through the Canadian Anusim surnames, places of origin and DNA to other Anusim and Jewish families, thereby re-establishing family ties that were lost in the Jewish diaspora.
So how can researchers determine whether there were Jewish people of France that made their way to New France? Jensen hopes to combine genealogical and historical research along with Y-DNA and mtDNA results of French Canadians to demonstrate the presence of Jewish ancestry in New France, one day giving them their rightful recognition among the first settlers.
The research has yielded some surprises, including a possible Ashkenazi heritage among some of the first settlers. Take my family for example. My first ancestor, Jean Ducas, came to New France from the deep southwest of France, so far south, his listed origin was only a few miles from the Spanish border.
The surname Ducas is quite rare, but mainly considered of Ashkenazi origin, a name carried by some Jewish families originating from the Rhine region of France. But further research into the surname showed it was most likely linked with these families of Alsace.
Many of the Jewish families of Alsace were merchants and had been living and trading all along the routes of St. Jacques Compostelle The way of St. The DNA testing also showed a series of DNA results indicating middle eastern origins among other families from more northern areas of France, like the historical province of Perche.
Many of the surnames bare a striking resemblance to common Ashkenazi surnames of today. R1a is relatively rare in Western France. These numbers can be seen as quite average for a country like France which is also a Mediterranean country, but given that many of the settlers of New France came from northern France, they could be considered significantly higher than average. This decree lead to many census lists of Jews from all over France and gave Deborah Jensen and her team an excellent window into which names were taken and which bore a resemblance to names found in French Canadian society.
The task in the months ahead will be to find participants with surnames found on these lists to submit for a DNA test. Should the results show an affinity with Middle Eastern groups, then the hard work of proving a Jewish background can begin.
Could he have been a convert to Catholicism? Kevin7 Lv 7. Answer Save. Favorite Answer. Source s : The settlement of Sephardim in France along with their seemingly quiet dispersal coincides time-wise to the settlement of New France.
Furthermore many of the settlers of New France came from cities like Rouen, La Rochelle, Bordeaux and Bayonne, cities with known Sephardic settlement and subsequent dispersal. The project has its hurdles. Names were often changed to assimilate with French society and records on the movement of Sephardim in France are sparse. Audrey 2 months ago Report. Still have questions? Get your answers by asking now.This site was created by Yoram Zara, Adv.
Yoram specializes in obtaining Portuguese citizenship for Sephardi Jews. The disappearance of Sephardic. In tribute to Harry Steinthis this site detials his name list and work.
The Sephardic names listed on this site are taken form the references listed below. The names are in alphabetical order. Beside each listing is a number or series of numbers and letters enclosed in parenthesis such as 2 6A 9 These numbers correspond to the references listed below where the names were found.
The authors of these works have identified the names as being held by Sephardim. The reference code is listed below. Most anyone appearing before the inquisition was a converso because the inquisition, by definition, had no power over the Jewish population.
COM, has been for a long time one of the major websites for Sephardic genealogy on the Internet. Among its many offerings it contained a unique section on Sephardic herardlry and a list of Sephardic surnames that he patiently extracted from a large number of published books.
Connected to the website was also arguably the most popular and active forum on Sephardic genealogy on the web.